Adult multi sex

All differentially expressed exons map to β-neurexins (boxed region) indicating sex-biased expression of these transcripts.

Error bars represent the Standard error of the mean (s.e.m).

The issue of differences between the ‘male brain’ and ‘female brain’ has been endlessly debated in the psychological literature and popular press.

Adult multi sex-85Adult multi sex-11

Hypothalamus (boxed) is the only brain region showing significant sex-biased gene expression.

(c) Gene structure of NRXN3 and expression levels (y axis) plotted for each probe set (x axis) covering NRXN3 in males (blue line) and females (red line) in thalamus.

In total we analysed 1,182 post-mortem brain samples dissected from frontal cortex, occipital cortex (BA17, primary visual cortex), temporal cortex, intralobular white matter, thalamus, putamen, substantia nigra, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medulla, cerebellar cortex and spinal cord.

These samples originated from 137 individuals of which 101 were male and 36 were female.

Of the 114 genes with both evidence of sex-biased expression and an OMIM entry, 12 mapped to the sex chromosomes, with the remaining 102 genes located on autosomes.

Amongst these genes, 39 were associated with a disease with a sex-biased incidence, 5 were associated with diseases directly affecting the development/maintenance of the reproductive system and 3 were implicated in breast, ovarian or prostate cancer (Supplementary Data 6).However, we verified that none of the findings reported in this study could be accounted for by sex differences in any of these factors (Methods).Sex-biased expression and splicing was investigated in each brain region separately and by averaging gene-level signals across all brain regions.(b) RSPO1 expression in women (red) and men (blue) in the human CNS.Error bars represent the standard error of the mean (N=13).We explored the biological significance of this observation by investigating our list of genes with sexually dimorphic expression for involvement in human disease.

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