America bottleneck cheetah dating genetic primary source

Repeated episodes of gene flow highlight the central role of cyclic climates in structuring high-latitude diversity, through refugial divergence and introgressive hybridization.When introgression is followed by allopatric isolation (e.g., insularization) it may ultimately expedite divergence.

america bottleneck cheetah dating genetic primary source-44

a SYT originates from ancestors of Beringia and East populations; b YTAK is admixed from East and an unsampled ancestor of all M.

erminea lineages; c NPC stems from ancestors of Beringia and East clades.

Genomic samples are labeled with locality abbreviations: ANN (Annette Island, Alaska, USA), BC (southern British Columbia, Canada), KUP (Kupreanof Island, Alaska, USA), MON (Mongolia), NM (New Mexico, USA), POW (Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, USA), REV (Revillagigedo Island, Alaska, USA), SYT (Southern Yukon Territory, Canada), YTAK (northern Yukon-Alaska border), VT (Vermont, USA). d Mid-point rooted maximum-likelihood phylogenies, scaled by genetic distance. 2; Supplementary Table 1) support for four stoat clades geographically coincident with North American refugia.

Contact zones are denoted with yellow hatching, based on the presence of mixed mitochondrial haplotypes. d (left) Complete mitochondrial genomes and d (right) autosomal SNPs for ten M. Phylogenies demonstrate strong support for four major refugial clades and mitonuclear discordance for hybrid samples (SYT, YTAK). We identified deep divergence of a highly distinctive West clade, a group previously lacking strong nuclear support3 million autosomal SNPs between Beringia and East clades), comparable to estimates between Beringia stoats and the outgroup species, M.

b PCA with the West population removed demonstrates additional structure within the East clade, centered on Vermont (VT).

Hybrid samples are intermediate to their source populations.(d distributions of effective population sizes (N) and a 2-year generation time.d PSMC plots for a representative from each refugial population (East, West, Beringia, NPC).a PCA with all samples demonstrates substantial nuclear genetic differentiation of the West clade.PC1 explains 20.7% of the total variation, and PC2 explains 14.1%.With expanded genomic coverage, we test for signatures of refugial divergence and introgression, characterize the timing of introgression events relative to climatic oscillations, and infer the impact of introgressive hybridization on divergence across the complex landscape of northwestern North America.

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