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On these, in connection with SCHWEIZER- SIDLEE, the chapter on the Formation of Words has been based. and ix.), containing a discussion of the earlier Literature ; ELMER'S articles on the Latin Prohibitive in A. Where it has been necessary to modify the quotations in order to make them suitable for citation, we have enclosed within square brackets words occurring in different form in the text, and in paren- theses words that have been inserted ; where the passage would not yield to such treatment, Cf. We have not thought it necessary to add the references in the Prosody except in the case of some of the citations from early Latin.

In the historical treatment of the Syntax we must still rely in large measure on DRAEGER'S Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache (2d edition, 1878, 1881), faulty and inaccurate though it often is : many of the false statements have been corrected on the basis of more recent individual studies by SCHMALZ ; but even SCHMALZ is not always correct, and many statements of his treatise have been silently emended in the present book. In the spelling of Latin words used out of quotation, as a rule u and v have been followed by o rather than by u ; but here the require- ments of clearness and the period of the language have often been allowed to weigh.

For the theoretical study of some problems of Latin Syntax HAASE'S Vorlesungen uber lateinische Sprachwissenschaft (1880) should not be overlooked. Otherwise we have followed in the main BRAM imaginis, nominis, imaginl, nomini, imaginem, nomen, imago, nomen, imagine, nomine, imagines, nomina, imaginum, nominum, imaginibus, nominibus, imagines, nomina, imagines, nomina, imaginibus.

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THE first edition of this LATIN GRAMMAR appeared in 1867, the second in 1872 ; the third edition, carefully revised and very much enlarged, is herewith presented to the public. Important also are the Grammars of KUHNER (1877, 1878) * and ROBY (1881, 1882) ; though many statements in both, but especially in the former, must be corrected in the light of more recent study.

In the preparation of this third edition the office of the senior collaborator has been chiefly advisory, except in the Syntax. Some indications of more modern theories may be found in * A new Historical Grammar, by STOLZ, SCHMALZ, LANDGRAF, and WAQENEK, was announced by TKUBNEK in 1891 IV PKEFACE. -er, ~eris : acip Snser, a fish ; agger, mound ; anser, goose ; asser, pole ; aster, a plant ; cancer, the disease ; career, prison; later, brick; mulier (f .), woman ; passer, sparrow ; tuber (m.

Imber, shower, linter, skiff, uter, bag, venter, belly, show the vowel nature of their steins by having Gen.

But many Nominatives in -os are still found in early Latin ; and some are still retained in the classical times : arbos (regularly in VERG., frequently in LUCK., HOR., Ov.), hones (regularly in VERG., commonly in Cic., LIVT), and others.

-nx, -nds : lanx, dish ; compounds of -uux, as quincunx, and a few names of animals ; phalanx has G.

-as, -atis : many feminine abstracts, as aetas, age ; some proper names, as Maecenas.

Indis- pensable is NEUE'S Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache, of which the second volume of the third edition has already appeared (1892) and the first parts of the third volume (1894), under the careful revision of WAGENEE; also GEOEGES' Lexikon der lateinischen Wortformen (1890). xv.) A bibliography of the treatises on Prosody and Versification may be found in GLEDITSCH'S treatise in the second volume of MULLER'S Handbuch ; this, with PLESSIS' Metrique Orecque et Latine (1889), has been made the basis of the chapter on Prosody ; but in the treatment of early metres, regard has been had to KLOTZ (Altromische JUetrik, 1890), and to LINDSAY'S recent papers on the Saturnian in the A. MULLER ; fragmentary Scenic Poets from the edition of RIBBECK. Also, imber, shower, linter, skiff, fiter, bag, venter, belly, which were probably vowel stems originally (see 45, R.

For the Formation of Words and the relation of Latin forms to those of the related languages we have HENRY'S Precis de Grammaire Com- paree and BRUGMANN'S Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, both now accessible in translations. Special care has been taken to make the quotations exact both in spelling and wording ; and any variation in the spelling of individual words is therefore due to the texts from which the examples are drawn.

Every effort has been made to incorporate in this grammar the main results of these studies as far as practicable.

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