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We used data from adults 18–59 years of age from the health check-up survey in our analyses (n = 7 784).Of these participants, 119 were excluded because of pregnancy, and 64 due to missing data for either level of education, SBP, DBP, height, weight, WC, or HC.

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We examined the associations of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio) with blood pressure components (systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, mid-blood pressure) and hypertension within four (18–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years) age groups, by sex.

We adjusted all analyses for education and location, with further adjustments, variously, for either a measure of central (waist circumference) or general (body mass index) adiposity.

A determinant of blood pressure is adiposity; however, there are uncertainties surrounding whether general or central adiposity is the more important determinant of blood pressure.

Further, inconsistent results exist for the relationships of anthropometric measures with blood pressure and hypertension, and whether these relationships differ substantially by age and sex is unclear.

Indeed, there is a paucity of research from India that directly examines the association of commonly used anthropometric measures of adiposity with blood pressure and hypertension.

Thus, these associations remain inadequately characterized. Furthermore, given the importance and potential differences in prognostic value of distinct blood pressure components [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, mid-blood pressure] [4, 5], it is equally important to elucidate the relationships between anthropometric measures and continuous blood pressure components, in addition to hypertension.

We therefore examine the independent and joint association of anthropometric measures of general and central adiposity with various blood pressure components and hypertension, and determine the effect of age and sex on these relationships in a sample of adults from the general population of India.

We conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the relationships between anthropometric measures of adiposity, blood pressure, and hypertension in India.

Additionally, by improving our understanding of whether a simple measure of general or central adiposity is more strongly associated with blood pressure and hypertension may help focus screening efforts and risk stratification of clinical populations where the measurement of blood pressure is not feasible.

However, most previous studies from India are small, from one region, provide conflicting evidence, and do not fully investigate the effect of age and sex on these relationships [11–14].

Field teams consisting of trained surveyors visited houses identified in their respective sampling units to obtain consent and enroll participants (surveyors made at least three visits to each household).

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