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The stations periodically transmit their routing tables to their immediate neighbors.A station also transmits its routing table if a significant change has occurred in its table from the last update sent.Each node in the network maintains a Distance table, a Routing table, a Link-Cost table and a Message Retransmission list.

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Every mobile station maintains a routing table that lists all available destinations, the number of hops to reach the destination and the sequence number assigned by the destination node.

The sequence number is used to distinguish stale routes from new ones and thus avoid the formation of loops.

When it goes out of range of one base station, it connects with new base station and starts communicating through it. All nodes of these networks behave as routers and take part in discovery and maintenance of routes to other nodes in the network.

Ad hoc networks are very useful in emergency search-and-rescue operations, meetings or conventions in which persons wish to quickly share information, and data acquisition operations in inhospitable terrain [Royer99].

In table driven routing protocols consistent and up-to-date routing information to all nodes is maintained at each node whereas in on-demand routing the routes are created only when desired by the source host.

Next two sections discuss current table-driven protocols as well as on-demand protocols.When the network topology changes the nodes propagate update messages throughout the network in order to maintain a consistent and up-to-date routing information about the whole network.These routing protocols differ in the method by which the topology change information is distributed across the network and the number of necessary routing-related tables.Each route update packet, in addition to the routing table information, also contains a unique sequence number assigned by the transmitter. The stations delay the transmission of a routing update by settling time so as to eliminate those updates that would occur if a better route were found very soon.The Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) [Murthy96]is a table-based distance-vector routing protocol.The following sections discuss some of the existing table-driven ad hoc routing protocols.

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