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This matching process is called correlation, which has been an important process in constructing geological timescales.

Some fossils, called index fossils, are particularly useful in correlating rocks.

Correlation can involve matching an undated rock with a dated one at another location.

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The activity offers literacy opportunities as well as practice using the science capability 'Interpret representations'.

The Permian through Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah is a great example of Original Horizontality and the Law of Superposition, two important ideas used in relative dating.

These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park.

From top to bottom: Rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone, layered red Kayenta Formation, cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red Wingate Sandstone, slope-forming, purplish Chinle Formation, layered, lighter-red Moenkopi Formation, and white, layered Cutler Formation sandstone.

• CROSS-CUTTING: Anything that cuts a rock must be younger than the rock a.

Igneous intrusion - is younger than rock it has intruded (cut across).For a fossil to be a good index fossil, it needs to have lived during one specific time period, be easy to identify and have been abundant and found in many places. If you find ammonites in a rock in the South Island and also in a rock in the North Island, you can say that both rocks are Mesozoic.Different species of ammonites lived at different times within the Mesozoic, so identifying a fossil species can help narrow down when a rock was formed.(4) Metamorphism of outcrop A created rock layer 3. Uplift – area of crust uplifted above sea level (deposition – under water) 2. OTHER METHODS OF CORRELATION • Layers of bedrock exposed (outcrops) on either sides of river valleys/excavations “walking the outcrop” • Volcanic ash – large eruption – widely distributed – represents a small time interval LIKE AN INDEX FOSSIL VOLCANIC ASH LAYER AT THE SAME TIME AS THE DINOSAURS BECAME EXTINCT LEAD SCIENTISTS TO LOOK FOR METEORITE CRATER Chicxulub Crater 65 mya 170 km.Relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence.For example, microscopic dinoflagellates have been studied and dated in great detail around the world.

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