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Fashioning gemstones is accomplished by a diamond cutter or lapidary who carves or engraves, tumbles, cuts en cabochon or facets gem materials.

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Rough gem material is first reduced in size using a saw, with a diamond or carborundum impregnated saw blade.

The blade runs vertically and is cooled by water or oil.

The reverse cabochon, although rarely seen, has the convex top with a concave or depression in it and flat bottom.

Cabochons are fashioned using sawing the rough, grinding, sanding, and polishing.

Carved jade has been found with Chinese burial sites dating from 3000 BC (Hurlbut and Kammerling, 1991, p. Cylinder seals were used as signatures and beetle-shaped scarabs were common in ancient Egypt.

Advanced machinery and techniques would eventually give rise to improved cabochon cuts and faceting, which is more dependent upon the physical and optical properties of gem rather than the shape.

The thin slab can then be smoothed of saw marks with a vibrating lap.

Lapping is a simple process that consists of rubbing the stone against the metal lap or simply laying the stone inside the rings, as shown to the left.

A slab of the gem material is cut to the desired thickness.

After sawing the gem, grinding, sanding, and polishing will finish the operation.

The general outline, or shape as viewed from above, is circular, oval, rectangular, heart-shaped, or irregular.

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